I wish I could meet a super-smart lawyer from the early Middle Ages who would persuasively argue me the divine right of kings, primogeniture, appanage, the distinction between movable and immovable property.
Posts tagged with history
This morning I had another talk with the German Chancellor, Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it as well as mine. (cheers) Some of you, perhaps, have already heard what it contains but I would just like to read it to you: “We, the German Fuhrer and Chancellor, and the British Prime Minister, have had a further meeting today, and are agreed in recognising that the question of Anglo-German relations is of the first importance for the two countries, and for Europe. (mutters of approval) We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again.”
—Neville Chamberlain, 30th September 1938
[I]t is … anachronistic to apply the term artist with its modern connotation to Leonardo [da Vinci]. Artists in the sense that we understand and use the word, meaning practitioner of fine art, didn’t exist in Leonardo’s time. It would be more appropriate to use the word artisan in its meaning of craftsman or skilled hand worker.
In the historical literature ∃ a perfectly good term to describe Leonardo and his ilk, Renaissance artist-engineer, whereby one can actually drop the term Renaissance as this profession already existed in the High Middle Ages before the Renaissance is considered to have begun.
[T]he artist-engineers were … regarded as menials. An artist-engineer was expected to be a practical mathematician, surveyor, architect, cartographer, landscape gardener, designer and constructor of scientific and technical instruments, designer of war engines and supervisor of their construction, designers of masks, pageants, parades and other public entertainments oh and an artist.
The … polymath … that everybody raves about when discussing Leonardo … actually … perfectly normal … any Renaissance artist-engineer—the only difference being that Leonardo was better at nearly all of them than most of his rivals.
As far as his dissections and anatomical drawings are concerned these belong to the standard training of a Renaissance artist-engineer—the major difference here being that Leonardo appears to have carried these exercises further than his contemporaries and his anatomical sketches have survived whereas those of the other Renaissance artists have not.
Having denied Leonardo the title of artist I think it is only fair to point out that it was the generation to which Leonardo belonged who were the first to become recognised as artists rather than craftsmen and in fact it has been claimed that Raphael was the first artist in the modern sense of the word….
[an exhibition on da Vinci] emphasises the few occasions where Leonardo drew something new or unexpected whilst ignoring the vast number of scientifically normal or often incorrect drawings, thereby creating the impression that his anatomical drawings were much more revolutionary than they in reality were. Also whilst the drawings published by Vesalius in his De fabrica in 1543, i.e. a couple of decades after Leonardo’s death, are possibly not quite as good artistically, as those done by Leonardo, they are medically much more advanced.
The population of Asia in 1500 was five times as big as that of Western Europe (284 million compared with 57 million), and the ratio was about the same in 1600. It was a very large market with a network of Asian traders operating between East Africa and India, and from Eastern India to Indonesia. East of the straits of Malacca,
trade was dominated by China. Indian ships were not sturdy enough to withstand the typhoons of the China sea, and not adequately armed to deal with pirate activity off the China coast….
The Portuguese displaced Asian traders who had supplied spices to Red Sea and Persian Gulf ports
for onward sale to Venetian, Genoese and Catalan traders. But this was only a fraction, perhaps a quarter, of Asian trade in one group of commodities. In addition there was trade within Asian waters in textiles, porcelain, precious metals, carpets, perfume, jewellery, horses, timber, salt, raw silk, gold, silver, medicinal herbs and many other commodities.
Hence, the spice trade was not the only trading opportunity for the Portuguese, or for the other later European traders (Dutch, British, French and others) who followed. Silk and porcelain played an increased role, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, cotton textiles and tea became very important. There were possibilities of participating in intra–Asian trade as well. In the 1550s to the 1630s this kind of trade between China and Japan was a particularly profitable source of income for Portugal.
As soon as an Analytic Engine exists, it will necessarily guide the future course of science.
Whenever any result is sought by its aid, the question will arise—By what course of calculation can these results be arrived at by the machine in the shortest time?
What is Eastern Europe? How did places like Gepidia, Nitra, Great Moravia, the Avar Khaganate, Habsburgia, Pannonia, Thrace, Dacia, Moesia, nomadic Göktürks under the Rouran Khaganate, Dalmatia, Cimmeria, Anatolia, the Great Seljuq Empire, Corinth, Onoghuria, Scythia, Syrmia, Vojvodina, Bulgaria, Carpathia, Illyria, Hamangia, Bosnia, Budim, Egri, Sigetvar, Temeşvar, Pomorje, Serbia, Arduba, Daorson, Ošanićia, Sarmatia, Čapljina, Ardea, Neretva, and Ossetia, in the middle of a continent that became socially dominated in the later half of the 2nd millennium A.D. by residents of its western islands and peninsulas, come to be seen as a “unified group” so that when an American visits Bratislava he expects something similar to Bucharest?
Anne Applebaum’s answer is that the present categorisation was essentially shaped by the USSR, a political powerhouse in Eurasia during the 20th century.
bonus: from Wikipedia, here are some notable biomes in the middle of the Eurasian supercontinent.
The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains (Hungarian: Dunántúli-középhegység). The northwestern part…and the southeastern part…comprise the following sections:
Note: The Transylvanian Plateau and the Lučenec-Košice Depression (both parts of the Carpathians) and some other lowlands are sometimes also considered part of the Pannonian Plain in non-geomorphological or older divisions.
Relatively large or distinctive areas of the plain that do not necessarily correspond to national borders include: